2017年10月18日 星期三

Paid to poo: Combating open defecation in India

take the poo to the loo
關於這首歌的背景請看以下兩篇

第一篇
請注意 take for granted ; pose a threat to ;  effect ; implement; campaign這些字的用法
Using a toilet is something most people take for granted - but about 1.1 billion people around the world defecate in the open because they do not have access to proper sanitation. Now a scheme in India is aiming to instil better toilet habits in children by "paying them to poo".

It poses a serious threat to the health of children. Hundreds of thousands of children die every year because of diseases transmitted through human waste.

In India, nearly half of the population - more than 590m people - relieve themselves in the open.
For many it's a daily ritual and often something they do even when public facilities are available.

 in the Gujarati city of Ahmedabad has come up with a scheme where children are being paid to use public toilets. Campaigners hope it will improve the situation in a country where diseases such as diarrhoea kill about 200,000 children every year.
"Some of these people fear that there are witches inside or that their children will be kidnapped.
When people defecate in the open, flies feed on the waste and then carry small amounts away on their bodies. The flies then come into contact with food.
Human waste can also run into wells and streams, contaminating water that may be used for drinking or bathing.
So health officers at Ahmedabad Municipal Council came up with a new approach to try to encourage residents to use the toilets, some of which are free while others cost money to use.
"So we realised we have to introduce some other scheme. We are giving one rupee (less than a penny) to the children per day, or we're giving them chocolates to encourage use of the toilets."

Under the new scheme, Bhumi is making one rupee every time she uses a public toilet. Her visits are recorded on a card and she receives her money at the end of the month.

"The toilets are good," said Bhumi. "I will use the money I make for school."
They say the toilets are not kept clean and that their children are often stopped from entering the facilities because some of them use too much water.
Open defecation also has wider effects on a country, affecting education, income, women's safety and dignity.

In recent years, India has implemented well-funded sanitation campaigns, but few have worked.

Some campaigners say that building toilets is not enough and that more needs to be done to reshape attitudes.

But the people behind this scheme hope their alternative approach could be a crucial first step towards ending open defecation in India.

第二篇
請注意  have access to  ;  incentives ;  subsidise ; 和lack這些字的用法

Why do millions of Indians defecate in the open?

They are among the 48% of Indians who do not have access to proper sanitation.
To many, this is a daily morning ritual despite the hazards of contracting diseases such as diarrhoea and hepatitis.
It can be even more hazardous for women since each time a woman uses the outdoors to relieve herself, she faces a danger of sexual assault.

And former rural development minister Jairam Ramesh of the Congress party had stressed that "practicing good hygiene is as important as performing good puja" (act of worship in Hinduism).

India's government offers cash incentives to subsidise construction of toilets. It has also initiated hygiene and sanitation awareness campaigns, such as the "No Toilet, No Bride" slogan launched in the state of Haryana in 2005, urging brides to reject a groom if he did not have a lavatory at home.

Apart from poverty and lack of lavatories, one of the reasons often cited to explain open defecation in India is the ingrained cultural norm making the practice socially accepted in some parts of the society.

"Just building toilets is not going to solve the problem, because open defecation is a practice acquired from the time you learn how to walk. When you grow up in an environment where everyone does it, even if later in life you have access to proper sanitation, you will revert back to it,
上課教的你們都會了嗎